Cadmium in jewelry, a threat to human health

Cadmium in jewelry.
In most cultures across the globe jewelry is regarded  as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns or designs, or for meaningful symbols.  The Royal families world over were fond of them, particularly the royal British family, leave alone Indian Maharajahs and Nawabs of yore.  There are pieces of Jewelry to adorn nearly every part of the human body, from hairpins to toe rings. Though jewelry is designed for men, women and children. It is the  women who are  the most consistent wearers the purpose is to enhance their beauty and look that may get the attention of other people. They give them confidence and improve their aura!! In the case of Indian women, jewelry is  a regular ornament and they wear them in plenty on important family functions, etc. It is a chance for them to flaunt their rich collection and prove their status in the society.  Those who can not afford costly gold jewelry,  turn to imitation jewelry with a glitter; , this is true of Indian as well as European women. Wearing imitation, cheap jewelry gives them a safety net in societies where thefts, robbery and mugging are frequent. In India, especially in Tamil Nadu,  motor-bike chain snatchers are a menace to the women wearing gold jewelry. Dazzling pieces of jewelry attract women more than others  when attending important functions or parties, and they wear attractive bracelets, ear studs, rings etc to match their dress. Many of  them  may not be aware of the lurking dangers in them because  the low priced cheap attractive pieces of jewelry are a storehouse of  hazardous elements such as cadmium. lead, nickel, etc. Among them, cadmium is the most notorious one. Lately, in the western countries people are advised by certain agencies not buy jewelry or any stuff containing above elements. So, 'all that glitters is not gold, rather it is a shining path to to the grave'

Cadmiun jewelry
Cadmium contamination can more impact children's health than adults. It has a long list of  proven bad effects and both adults and children should avoid jewelry or any other products associated with cadmium.  

 As mentioned the negative effects of cadmium on the body are numerous and can impact nearly all systems in the body, including cardiovascular, reproductive, the kidneys, eyes, and even the brain. 01. Ingestion of cadmium causes poisoning, 02. The danger is once inside the body, it keeps accumulating and it is impossible to get rid of it, 03. There is a likelihood kidneys are likely to shrink by 30% and form stone, besides it may lead to multi-organ failure, 04.  The compounds of this metal being carcinogens, it may lead to lung cancer and prostate cancer, 05. Researchers report  some of them are neurotoxic; they  cause neuron cell death and it may affect the growth of brain. 06. Apart from making bones fragile ((Itai-ltai) in the case of children, it affects the renal and dopaminergic systems, 07. Cadmium affects blood pressure, 08 Cadmium may affect testosterone levels in the case of males.
As for the unborn, this hazardous metal can adversely affect its growth. Cadmium has the rare ability to cross the placenta and get accumulated in the foetal tissues.  In the case of pre-natal exposure to this metal, it is likely it will result in poor brain development, reduced weight during birth and birth size. 

Responding to an API (Associated Press International) investigation that reported  high levels of the known carcinogen in the Disney movie-themed pendants “The Princess and The Frog” and other children’s metal jewelry imported from China,  the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, that  had tested  for cadmium in children's metal jewelry  for several weeks finally  disclosed the recall. Lab tests done on 103 pieces of low-priced children’s jewelry as part of AP’s original investigation found 12 items with cadmium content above 10 percent of the total weight. One item consisted of 91 percent cadmium by weight. The popular Pendants from four “The Princess and The Frog” necklaces had a cadmium content  between 25 and 35 percent cadmium, according to the testing. Federal consumer safety regulators announced the recall of the toxic pedants and jewelry containing traces of cadmium way back in Feb 2010. 

The recall marks the first time any consumer product - “The Princess and The Frog” pendants has been recalled in the United States because of cadmium. The items had been on sale at Wal-Mart stores in the US since release of the animated Disney movie. Wal-Mart, the main retailer, pulled out the two items from its shelves. CPSC immediately warned the  parents to discard all pieces of inexpensive metal jewelry, pointing out that children who chew, suck on or swallow a bracelet charm or necklace may be endangering their health. The recent research also suggests cadmium  can harm brain development in children.
Soon after Wal-Mart pulled the items, the CPSC’s chairman warned the
parents to throw away all pieces of inexpensive metal jewelry, noting that children who chew, suck on or swallow a bracelet charm or necklace may be endangering their health.

In spite of the risk involved in wearing cadmium jewelry, and its first ever recall in Feb 2010, surprisingly in the 3rd week of October 2018, Jewelry with the toxic metal cadmium is showing up on the shelves of national retailers  across the US according to a recent news
The nonprofit organization Center for Environmental Health reported that some jewelry pieces sold with women's dresses and shirts were  nearly pure cadmium, which could  cause cancer and reproductive harm after prolonged exposure. The reappearance of cadmium since the recall of children's jewelry has surprised the 
consumer advocates  who thought cadmium had disappeared from the US  kid's jewelry market.
Unfortunately no laws address the Adult jewelry. Lab testing done on 31 adult jewelry items purchased from retail stores were at least 40 percent cadmium, and most were more than 90 percent, according to results shared exclusively with the AP

Under the state's Proposition 65, businesses must inform consumers about significant exposures to chemicals that cause cancer or other reproductive harm. The nonprofit Org. has settled Proposition 65 claims against 36 companies, including Gap Inc. and Target Corp., which agreed to not sell jewelry with more than 0.03 percent cadmium.

The jewelry industry helped write voluntary U.S. standards following the AP investigation, but the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission did not mandate any cadmium limits.