Why did India pale ale become popular drink world over?

India pale ale beer spiritedgifts.com

That 'necessity is the mother of invention' is true in the case of colonial rulers of India in the 17th and 18th century. From humble origins in 1600, East India Company run by a group of merchants were given monopoly privileges on all trade with the East Indies and in the Indian subcontinent. Over a period of time  the company  revenue and stature grew to such a level it was in charge of a proxy government in the areas controlled by them on behalf of the British Crown. 
India pale ale. www.smithsonianmag.com
The company's revenue  increased  to a vast proportion after Bengal had come  under its administration- a bright spot in the British Empire history.  The British economy got a big boost on account of vast income from Bengal that filed the Crown's coffers in London. Consequently Britain was in expansion mode in other continents  as well.  No doubt  the company  assumed  the most powerful economic and political force in India. The Indian rulers, though were  resourceful there was no semblance of unity among them and  the wily British Bobs exploited this weakness. Armed with pelf and power,  company's atrocities  and nefarious activities against the natives having reached  the peak, the resultant  long-drawn Indian Rebellion in 1857-58  saw a change in the administration. The  British Government directly controlled the Indian subcontinents and the lands, etc held by the East India company.  The Company’s docks at Blackwall, on the north bank of the River Thames, close to   London were  dissolved in 1874.
East India Co. flag en.wikipedia.org
East Indian ship operated by East India Company. en.wikipedia.org/
To the early British,  life in a strange hot land  far away from home without  beer is meaningless, a wretched one. It is something like the Yankees and Southerners without a six pack,  Texas High schools without a foot ball team and Asian Indians without their deep faith in Karma. It was the   East India Company  that was closely  associated with one of Britain’s great beer styles, India pale ale (IPA). Believe it or not, there ran at least  70 ships in regular service taking care of general trading of EIC. The company was responsible for supplying Britain’s numerous garrisons on the subcontinent.  Though they did receive regular supplies of cheese, wine, hams, etc from England, they were desperate about beer that was in great demand.   Brewers vied to produce a beer that was good enough  to survive the arduous  six month long sea journey to India. Like a sweat hog, the British soldiers toiling in the hot land  were parched, they needed  a nicely flavored beer  to wet their dry throat. Many brands did not survive the long sea journey to India,  and the sun-baked and  sun-tanned  British were disappointed. In these thousand-ton ships called East Indiaman, that would pitch and roll in transit, in the upper deck the silors sick with scurvy  could not bear the pain and the beer-barrels did not fare well because of intense heat and too much rolling. The  Britsfirst introduced a lukewarm beer—specifically dark, heavy, porter, the most popular brew of the day in chilly London town, but  it was unfit for the tropics.  George Hodgson's Bow brewery was a popular producer of heavy porter.  Necessity arose  for the brewers to come up  with a robust beer that could not only survive the long shelf life but also retain  its original flavor that could make the tippers happy. This led to the discovery of  India pale ale beer and in the later years  many of 19th-century British brewers built their fortunes on this widely used product."The term  (or IPA) comes from pale ales exported to India by the British at the time of the Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries. It has come to imply (but may not have originally been) a stronger, more highly hopped beer designed to withstand the rigors of the journey from England to India. So modern IPAs are strong and hoppy. “India Pale Ale” was first used in an Australian newspaper (the Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser) in 1829. The hop itself is an amazing sticky dark “vegemite” mass with an intoxicating aroma of passion fruit and golden syrup. The beer is assertively hoppy with aromas of stone fruit. As rich as a bitter  just MORE''.It  but  became  the  favorite ofAustralian, American and  British/Indian, often  served cool with strong flavored foods (game pie, red meats, sausages, cheese.

Michael Dyer was the one who made the local beer popular in India and he and his  family managed the Murree Brewery in Murree (in Pakistan now) in the Sub Himalayan region above 6000 feet.  It was founded in 1860 in order to serve the British in the subcontinent.  In the year 1892, out of 4,831,127 gallons of beer  produced in India, 2,748,365 gallons were purchased by commissariat mainly for the British soldiers to subdue their frustration, stressed life and ennui in the interior of tropical India. Dyer Meakin Breweries in India were acquired by Indian businessman N.N. Mohan and was listed  on the London Stock Exchange in 1949. The company's name changed to  Mohan Meakin Breweries after 1967. Their breweries re quite ppular in India.