Ala-ud-din Khilji, most treacherous ruler of Delhi - 1295 to 1316.

Ala-ud-din Khilji.1290 -1320 CE
Empire of Ala-ud-din Khilji.Khilji dynasty 1290 - 1320 CE
 Juna Khan, later to be known as Alauddin Khilji, the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty reigning from 1296 to 1316 was the most powerful ruler of the dynasty. He was of Turkish origin and had efficient military commanders Ulugh Khan, Nusrat Khan and eunuch(and his consort) Malik Kafur. Among them Khilji had a close relationship with Malik Kaufer, who was a handsome and effeminate Hindu, converted to Islam. Khilji bought him for 1000 dinars and rose him to the position of a general in his huge army. He was efficient, loyal and a ferocious fighter.

Among the Muslim rulers of India, both Aurangazeb and Alauddin Khilji were tyrannical to the core and had scant respect for people of other faiths. Md. Gazni was more interested in valuable treasures of Indian temples than in expansion of his rule. Under Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan, he annexed Gujarat in 1299 AD and looted the entire region. There were destructions, sufferings and chaos all the way and all around.

In 1294 Malik Kafur, Khalji's military general led the sultan's army against the capital city of the Yadava kingdom, Devagiri which was ruled  by Ramdeva. the king's son, Sankardeva. Kafur led further invasions southward into the Kakatiya dynasty, capturing immense riches from the palace treasury and several temples for the Delhi sultanate. The huge booty from Warangal, Andhra, S.India included the world famous Koh-i-Noor diamond. Treasures were looted from Hindu temples such as Hoyasaleshwara temple in Halebidu, Karnataka.

According to Muslim historian Ziauddin Barani, Kaufer successfully returned  to Delhi with 241 tonnes of gold, 20,000 horses and 612 elephants laden with the looted treasure.

 Kafur led two military expeditions in South India between 1309 and 1311 - the first against Warangal - and the second against Dwar Samudra, Malabar, and Madurai.

The Pandya ruler of Madurai,Tamil Nadu sought the help of Delhi sultanate to settle the succession  dispute  between two brothers. Malik Kaufer, camping in Andhra, came to Madurai  in 1311 CE.  Instead of helping the Madurai rulers, he directly looted the Meenakshshi temple in the hope of getting valuable treasures. Kaufer was terribly disappointed as he was unable to find any treasures there.Except the Amman shrine, almost the entire temple was in a chaotic state. Like Phoenix raising out of the ashes, the majestic temple was  restored by the Nayak kings under Vijayanagara and later by other rulers. However, it is believed, Malik Kaufer got substantial treasures from the royal treasury of Pandy kingdom. After the Madurai raid,it is believed, Kaufer and his army raided many places  along the way up to Rameswaram. His Madurai raid shattered the kingdom beyond revival and his devastating raid helped the later raid of Khilji's military leader, Ulugh Khan who annexed Madurai and Malabar.

On instruction from Allaudin Khilji, Ulugh Khan and his army in 1323 AD raided the famous Sri Ranganathar temple of Sriangam for treasures. The siege continued for a short period resulting in death and destructions and no temple treasures.


 Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 217.

History of India Nilakanta Sastri, P.213